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What is CBDV and what are its effects?

CBDV Properties, effects and benefits

Cannabidivarin or CBDV is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid very similar to CBD (cannabidiol) which is also derived from the cannabis plant and which you can find in Full Spectrum CBD oils and in the CBD flowers . Currently, CBDV is gaining fame for its properties to help with epilepsy and autism.

This cannabinoid has attracted the attention of different researchers and here we will describe what has been studied about CBDV, where it comes from, its potential benefits, possible therapeutic applications and its current legal status.

What is CBDV?

CBDV is a type of cannabinoid found naturally in the Cannabis sativa plant. Like CBD, CBDV has no psychoactive effect, and is being studied for a wide range of possible therapeutic applications.

The chemical formula of CBDV is C19H26O2 and it is an analog of CBD, which means that their molecular structures are very similar. These similarities between CBDV and CBD provide it with non-psychoactive properties and give it a beneficial potential for treating ailments.

Origin and Synthesis of CBDV

CBDV was identified in the 1970s (1), but it was not until 10 years ago that it began to attract the attention of scientists and physicians. CBDV is formed or biosynthesized in the trichomes of the cannabis plant, which are like tiny resin-filled mushroom-shaped structures found coating the flowers and leaves of the plant, especially the unfertilized female flowers, which are the buds of cannabis.

CBDV is produced from CBGVA (cannabigerovarinic acid). Together with CBGA (cannabigerolic acid) they represent the main cannabinoid precursors of the cannabis plant, from which the other cannabinoids are derived.

While CBGA is the precursor of the best known cannabinoids, which are THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD (cannabidiol) and CBC (cannabichromene), CBGVA gives rise to the varinic cannabinoids such as THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin), CBCV (cannabicromavarin) and the protagonist of today’s post, CBDV, in its acid form.

Although most commercially available products obtain or isolate CBDV from the cannabis plant, processes for its synthetic production from olivetol have begun to be developed (2).

Differences between CBDV, CBD and THC

CBDV is very similar to CBD and unlike THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBDV does not produce the psychoactive effect characteristic of THC, i.e. CBDV does not get high.

Because CBDV is an analog of CBD, it produces similar therapeutic effects. However, CBDV has excelled in research and differs from CBD in its incredible results in achieving positive effects for the treatment of symptoms related to autism (3), muscular dystrophy (4) and epilepsy (5).

Properties and Effects of CBDV

CBDV shares certain properties with CBD, for example, with its possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant effects.

CBDV has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant properties. In addition, it is being investigated for the treatment of neurological disorders and nausea.

On the other hand, in recent studies, CBDV has shown promise in the treatment of neurological disorders, as an anti-nausea agent, and for its relevance to bone health.

CBDV and the Endocannabinoid System

It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that the effects of CBDV can be therapeutic due to its interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). CBDV shows a low binding affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors of the endocannabinoid system (6), but has been suggested to bind more effectively to CB2 receptors (7).

As with CBD, CBDV also has the ability to bind to other receptors that are related to pain perception, such as TRP cation channels (8) and GPR55 receptors (9) that are predominantly present in the central nervous system and the immune system (10). Through modulation of these receptors:

CBDV may have an impact on physiological processes linked to pain, inflammation and neurological functions.

Potential Benefits and Therapeutic Applications of CBDV

The effects of CBD occur in different organs and systems of the body. The following is a summary of the most relevant ones according to studies carried out by various research groups.

We remind you that the purpose of this article is informative and is not intended to diagnose, prevent or cure any disease or symptom. Its content can complement, but never replace, the diagnosis or treatment of any disease or symptom. Cannactiva products are not medicines and are intended for external use. We recommend that you consult a health professional before using CBD products.

Nausea

CBDV has therapeutic potential for the treatment of nausea and vomiting. According to preclinical studies, it has been observed to have an antiemetic (anti-vomiting) and anti-nausea effect through indirect activation of certain serotonin receptors found in the central nervous system (16).

Epilepsy

The effects of CBDV in epilepsy appear to be promising (11). In one study CBDV showed a reduction of up to 40% of focal seizures in patients with epilepsy, but the result was attributed to the patients’ expectation of cannabinoid treatment, since the result was not very different from the reduction observed in patients receiving placebo (12). Therefore, the effectiveness of CBDV for epilepsy is still under investigation.

Muscular dystrophy

One of the benefits of CBDV is the reduction of chronic muscle inflammation present in problems such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (4). This, although tested in an animal model, certainly lays the groundwork for a potential effect of CBDV.

Autism

CBDV benefits neural circuitry by improving functional brain connectivity related to speech and language in patients with autism (13). The effect of CBDV in autism spectrum disorder has been surprising and distinguishes CBDV from other cannabinoids (14).

Bone disorders

Although more research is needed, it is possible that the effects of CBDV may help in some bone disorders, as it may modulate bone nodule formation and collagen production (15).

Treatment of gonorrhea

It appears that one benefit of CBDV may be focused on the treatment of gonorrhea, as consistent results have been demonstrated for treating the drug-resistant bacteria responsible for this disease(Neisseria gonorrhoeae) (17). Although research is in early stages, it appears that CBDV may help in the treatment of this disease.

CBDV, by interacting with the endocannabinoid system and other receptors related to pain and neurological functions, offers therapeutic potential in the treatment of conditions such as epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, autism, bone disorders and drug-resistant gonorrhea.

Research indicates that CBDV could be a complementary therapy for people suffering from some medical conditions. However, we should not forget that these are preliminary results and that more clinical studies are needed to ensure the efficacy and safety of CBDV.

How is CBDV taken?

CBDV products are very varied. This cannabinoid can be present in tinctures, capsules, oils and full-spectrum topical cannabis products. In Cannactiva you can find this cannabinoid in the following oils CBD oils as well as in some CBD flowers.

In general, products containing high amounts of CBDV come from cannabis strains that have been selectively crossed to form a higher concentration of CBDV.

Although the prevalence of synthetically sourced CBDV products available is not very high, it is recommended to investigate the source and quality of the CBDV product.

CBDV dosage

There is currently no dosing protocol for taking CBDV, studies that have been conducted on epilepsy have used CBDV doses of 400 to 800 mg twice daily orally (12) or also, CBDV doses of 10 mg/kg per day (18). In addition, studies on autism have used CBDV doses of 600 mg (13) per day orally.

Clinical studies have mostly used the oral route, however, CBDV can also be administered sublingually or topically. As a result of other routes of administration, different blood concentrations could be obtained and therefore different CBDV effects could be obtained.

Side Effects of CBDV

To date, side effects of CBDV have been very limited and it appears to have a relatively broad safety profile.

Common side effects or risks of CBDV may include mild gastrointestinal discomfort, fatigue or changes in appetite.

Today, the toxicity of CBDV has not been demonstrated and more research is needed to know its long-term effects.

Legal status and regulation of CBDV

The legality of CBDV is variable worldwide, mainly due to the restricted legal status of cannabis in some parts of the world.

In general, CBDV has remained off the legal radar, being a non-psychotropic cannabinoid and found in low proportions in cannabis. To date, it is not considered illegal in most European countries. However, in European countries, its use in food products is not yet authorized, so, for the time being, it cannot be found in supplements, cannabis gummies or any other type of food.

CBDV regulations revolve around existing cannabinoid regulations, which in some countries is often clearer for CBD or THC, and could leave cannabinoids like CBDV in legal “limbo.”

Due to the lack of psychoactive activity, CBDV is often legal in countries where CBD use is permitted, as legality tends to be influenced first by its psychotropic activity and then by evidence of therapeutic effectiveness.

CBDV tests positive to a drug test?

Doping tests are generally focused on the detection of THC and its metabolites. CBDV is an unpopular cannabinoid compared to THC and due to its lack of psychoactive action is not of interest in terms of detection. Therefore, the chances of testing positive for CBDV in a standard drug test are very low. Currently, routine testing does not consider CBDV.

In conclusion, CBDV is a unique cannabinoid that looks very promising for therapeutic applications and could perhaps be even more attractive than other cannabinoids in a few years. The cannabis plant remains a world from which incredible compounds continue to be obtained that surprise the scientific and medical community, as their scope can benefit the future of health.

This article is intended for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose, prevent or cure any disease or symptom. Its content can complement, but never replace, the diagnosis or treatment of any disease or symptom. Cannactiva products are not medicines and are intended for external use. We recommend that you consult a health professional before using CBD products.

Referencias
  1. Merkus F. W. (1971). Cannabivarin and tetrahydrocannabivarin, two new constituents of hashish. Nature, 232(5312), 579-580. https://doi.org/10.1038/232579a0
  2. Chiurchiù, E., Sampaolesi, S., Allegrini, P., Ciceri, D., Ballini, R., & Palmieri, A. (2021). A Novel and Practical Continuous Flow Chemical Synthesis of Cannabidiol (CBD) and its CBDV and CBDB Analogues. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. (8), p. 1286-1289, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.202001633.
  3. Zamberletti, E., Gabaglio, M., Woolley-Roberts, M., Bingham, S., Rubino, T., & Parolaro, D. (2019). Cannabidivarin Treatment Ameliorates Autism-Like Behaviors and Restores Hippocampal Endocannabinoid System and Glia Alterations Induced by Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure in Rats. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 13, 367. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00367
  4. Iannotti, F. A., Pagano, E., Moriello, A. S., Alvino, F. G., Sorrentino, N. C., D’Orsi, L., Gazzerro, E., Capasso, R., De Leonibus, E., De Petrocellis, L., & Di Marzo, V. (2019). Effects of non-euphoric plant cannabinoids on muscle quality and performance of dystrophic mdx mice. British journal of pharmacology, 176(10), 1568-1584. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14460
  5. Amada, N., Yamasaki, Y., Williams, C. M., & Whalley, B. J. (2013). Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression. PeerJ, 1, e214. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.214
  6. Husni, A. S., McCurdy, C. R., Radwan, M. M., Ahmed, S. A., Slade, D., Ross, S. A., ElSohly, M. A., & Cutler, S. J. (2014). Evaluation of Phytocannabinoids from High Potency Cannabis sativa using In Vitro Bioassays to Determine Structure-Activity Relationships for Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Cannabinoid Receptor 2. Medicinal chemistry research : an international journal for rapid communications on design and mechanisms of action of biologically active agents, 23(9), 4295-4300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00044-014-0972-6
  7. Navarro, G., Varani, K., Lillo, A., Vincenzi, F., Rivas-Santisteban, R., Raïch, I., Reyes-Resina, I., Ferreiro-Vera, C., Borea, P. A., Sánchez de Medina, V., Nadal, X., & Franco, R. (2020). Pharmacological data of cannabidiol- and cannabigerol-type phytocannabinoids acting on cannabinoid CB1, CB2 and CB1/CB2 heteromer receptors. Pharmacological research, 159, 104940. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104940
  8. De Petrocellis, L., Starowicz, K., Moriello, A. S., Vivese, M., Orlando, P., & Di Marzo, V. (2007). Regulation of transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8): effect of cAMP, cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and endovanilloids. Experimental cell research, 313(9), 1911-1920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.01.008
  9. Anavi-Goffer, S., Baillie, G., Irving, A. J., Gertsch, J., Greig, I. R., Pertwee, R. G., & Ross, R. A. (2012). Modulation of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by cannabinoids. The Journal of biological chemistry, 287(1), 91-104. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.296020
  10. Oyagawa, C. R. M., & Grimsey, N. L. (2021). Cannabinoid receptor CB1 and CB2 interacting proteins: Techniques, progress and perspectives. Methods in cell biology, 166, 83-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2021.06.011
  11. Perucca E (2017). Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?. Journal of Epilepsy Research, 7(2), 61-76. https://doi.org/10.14581/jer.17012
  12. Brodie, M. J., Czapinski, P., Pazdera, L., Sander, J. W., Toledo, M., Napoles, M., Sahebkar, F., Schreiber, A., & GWEP1330 Study Group (2021). A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidivarin as Add-on Therapy in Participants with Inadequately Controlled Focal Seizures. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 6(6), 528-536. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2020.0075
  13. Pretzsch, C. M., Floris, D. L., Voinescu, B., Elsahib, M., Mendez, M. A., Wichers, R., Ajram, L., Ivin, G., Heasman, M., Pretzsch, E., Williams, S., Murphy, D. G. M., Daly, E., & McAlonan, G. M. (2021). Modulation of striatal functional connectivity differences in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder in a single-dose randomized trial of cannabidivarin. Molecular autism, 12(1), 49. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-021-00454-6
  14. Zamberletti, E., Rubino, T., & Parolaro, D. (2021). Therapeutic potential of cannabidivarin for epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 226, 107878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107878
  15. Scutt, A., & Williamson, E. M. (2007). Cannabinoids stimulate fibroblastic colony formation by bone marrow cells indirectly via CB2 receptors. Calcified tissue international, 80(1), 50-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-006-0171-7
  16. Rock, E. M., Bolognini, D., Limebeer, C. L., Cascio, M. G., Anavi-Goffer, S., Fletcher, P. J., Mechoulam, R., Pertwee, R. G., & Parker, L. A. (2012). Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. British journal of pharmacology, 165(8), 2620-2634. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01621.x
  17. Yang, F., Liu, J., Gu, Y., Jiao, R., Yan, J., Gao, S., Lin, X., & van der Veen, S. (2022). Antimicrobial Activity of Auranofin, Cannabidivarin, and Tolfenamic Acid against Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Microbiology spectrum, 10(6), e0395222. https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.03952-22
  18. Hurley, E. N., Ellaway, C. J., Johnson, A. M., Truong, L., Gordon, R., Galettis, P., Martin, J. H., & Lawson, J. A. (2022). Efficacy and safety of cannabidivarin treatment of epilepsy in girls with Rett syndrome: A phase 1 clinical trial. Epilepsia, 63(7), 1736-1747. https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.17247

Masha Burelo
Investigadora en cannabinoides | Doctoranda en Neurociencia

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